The Andes have a direct mechanical influence on the climatology of South America by forcing orographic precipitation along the eastern flanks of the Andes, and blocking westerly flow from the Pacific.
What effects do the Andes mountains have on climate?
The Andes mountain range has a profound impact on the climate and environment of the South American continent. The range acts as a barrier between the coast to the west and the extremely humid Amazon basin to the east.
Why are the Andes so important to South America?
The Andes play a vital part in national economies, accounting for a significant proportion of the region’s GDP, providing large agricultural areas, mineral resources, and water for agriculture, hydroelectricity (Figure 1), domestic use, and some of the largest business centres in South America.
What determines climate in the Andes?
The mountains have a large influence on the climate in the surrounding areas; especially in the interior where the Andes borders the rainforest. In the areas closer to The Pacific temperatures and precipitation figures are influenced by several types of winds.
What role do the Andes play in Patagonia’s climate?
The Andes contribute a significant portion of river basin water supply, with up to 35 percent annually from glaciers or snowfall in some of the more arid regions of Peru and Chile (Vergara et.
What are the four climate regions of the Andes Mountains?
Vertical climatic zones are particularly well-defined in the Andes, ranging from humid to warm (tierra caliente) at the base or foothills; temperate and semi-humid (tierra templada) at mid-level; cool and dry (tierra fría) in the highlands; and cold to freezing (tierra helada) in the glacial summit areas.
Why is the climate arid on the western coast of South America?
Cause and origin
The northern portion of the Arid Diagonal is a result of the blocking of the trade winds by the barrier formed by the Central Andes and the South Pacific High. To the south in the westerlies, the rain shadow that the Southern Andes casts over eastern Patagonia similarly blocks moisture.
How does the Andes mountains affect South America?
The Andes form a huge barrier between the eastern Pacific Ocean and the rest of the continent of South America. This barrier impacts the climate of South America. … The west side of the central Andes is extremely dry and includes the Atacama Desert in northern Chile; the eastern part of the central Andes is much wetter.
What environmental challenges does living in the Andes pose?
Agriculture on the Andes is difficult, and crop yields are relatively poor. The water supply is inadequate, and a large part of the plateau region is dry or receives little and irregular seasonal rainfall. Temperatures of the high plains are cold, and crops are subject to freezing.
What are the Andes used for?
The Andes help feed the world
Although its derivative, cocaine, has brought about many problems in countries like Peru, the ancient Incas used to cultivate coca since before the Spaniards arrived. Coca tea is served everywhere in the high Andes, and is the one effective reliever of symptoms of altitude sickness.
How do the Andes differ from north to south?
The southern section is rainy and cool, the central section is dry. The northern Andes are typically rainy and warm, with an average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F) in Colombia. The climate is known to change drastically in rather short distances.
What is the difference between the climates to the east and west of the Andes?
The prominent Andes cordillera induces significant differences in climates between its eastern and western slopes. These climatic differences are largely reflected by contrasting vegetation and ice coverages but remain poorly documented.
What are the three main factors that influence climate?
What are the three factors that affect temperature? latitude, altitude, distance from oceans and lakes.
Which is true about the Andes mountain of South America?
The Andes consist of a vast series of extremely high plateaus surmounted by even higher peaks that form an unbroken rampart over a distance of some 5,500 miles (8,900 kilometres)—from the southern tip of South America to the continent’s northernmost coast on the Caribbean.
How have the Andes Mountains changed over time?
It’s been understood that the Andes mountain range has been growing as the Nazca oceanic plate slips underneath the South American continental plate, causing the Earth’s crust to shorten (by folding and faulting) and thicken.
What tectonic plates formed the Andes Mountains?
The mountains have been formed as a result of the convergence of the Nazca plate and the South American plate.