Urbanization impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services both directly and indirectly. Direct impacts primarily consist of habitat loss and degradation, altered disturbance regimes, modified soils and other physical transformations caused by the expansion of urban areas.
How does urbanization affect biodiversity?
Direct effects occur when urban areas expand, converting natural habitat into cities. … This adds up to a big loss of biodiversity, because species richness (number of species) at a site is globally on average 50% lower at urban sites than in intact natural habitat.
How does urbanization affect the ecosystem?
Urbanization also affects the broader regional environments. Regions downwind from large industrial complexes also see increases in the amount of precipitation, air pollution, and the number of days with thunderstorms. Urban areas affect not only the weather patterns, but also the runoff patterns for water.
What is biodiversity and how does urban development impact it?
Urban development is a major driver of environmental change. Urban areas contain threats to, and opportunities for, biodiversity . The conversion or degradation of natural ecosystems in urban areas has the most obvious and immediate impacts on biodiversity .
What affects biodiversity in an ecosystem?
Biodiversity change is caused by a range of drivers. A driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. … Important direct drivers affecting biodiversity are habitat change, climate change, invasive species, overexploitation, and pollution (CF4, C3, C4. 3, S7).
Are urbanization and biodiversity incompatible?
Urbanization is one of the most intensive and rapid human-driven factors that threat biodiversity. … The mean functional originality increased with urbanization at both local and regional scales, although this increase vanished in communities with high species richness.
How does urbanization impact the local ecosystems in the surrounding area?
Increasing population and urbanisation causes pressure on natural resources and high demand for ecosystem services, which combined can lead to critical environmental degradation, such as water crisis, air pollution, microclimatic alteration and collapse of natural resources (Seto and others 2011; Solecki and others …
How does urbanization affect animals?
Urbanization dramatically alters the composition of wildlife communities, leading to biodiversity loss 3, 14 and increases in the abundance of species that thrive in urban areas.
How does urbanization contribute to climate change?
Over half of the world’s population lives in cities, and this is likely to increase to over two thirds by 2030. Cities use a large proportion of the world’s energy supply and are responsible for around 70 per cent of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions which trap heat and result in the warming of Earth.
What are the negative effects of urbanization?
Some of the major health problems resulting from urbanization include poor nutrition, pollution-related health conditions and communicable diseases, poor sanitation and housing conditions, and related health conditions.
How does urbanization affect wetland plant diversity?
The wetland ecosystem changed a lot in watershed due to the effects of urbanization. … Urbanization also reduces native plant species and increases introduced plant species. Moreover, the drinking water can be polluted and then causes health problems on human body.
How do biotic factors affect the biodiversity in an ecosystem?
Biotic: Biotic factors are the interactions between the living things in an ecosystem. This can include grazing and predation. Animals which graze on the plant species in an ecosystem can influence which species of plants can survive. … Extremes of an abiotic factor can reduce the biodiversity of the ecosystem.
What would increase the biodiversity of an ecosystem?
As a general rule, increasing biodiversity can be achieved by diversifying the range of habitats or vegetation structures available at a site. This can be achieved by, for example, varying mowing regimes, planting or seeding with native tree and shrub species, or occasional soil disturbance.
Which affects biodiversity the most?
Historically, habitat and land use change have had the biggest impact on biodiversity in all ecosystems, but climate change and pollution are projected to increasingly affect all aspects of biodiversity.