Who made a distinction between shallow and deep ecology?
In his essay The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movements: A Summary, published in 1973 in the journal Inquiry, Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss (1912–2009) coined the concept deep ecology.
Who introduced deep ecology?
The phrase originated in 1972 with Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess, who, along with American environmentalist George Sessions, developed a platform of eight organizing principles for the deep ecology social movement.
What did Arne Naess believe?
Naess’s coinages — which did not confront technology and economic growth. It formed part of a broader personal philosophy that Mr.
Associated with the social theorist Murray Bookchin, it emerged from a time in the mid-1960s, under the emergence of both the global environmental and the American civil rights movements, and played a much more visible role from the upward movement against nuclear power by the late 1970s.
Who is associated with Ecofeminism?
ecofeminism, also called ecological feminism, branch of feminism that examines the connections between women and nature. Its name was coined by French feminist Françoise d’Eaubonne in 1974.
What is shallow ecology?
Shallow ecology refers to the philosophical or political position that environmental preservation should only be practiced to the extent that it meets human interests. Shallow ecology provides an anthropocentric defense of the natural world, holding that it is worth protecting to the extent that it benefits humans.
Who introduced the term niche?
Joseph Grinnell in 1917 coined the term niche, which he used as mostly equivalent to a species habitat. In 1927, Charles Sutherland Elton regarded niche to be equivalent to the position of a species in a trophic web.
Who coined the term ecological niche?
The term was coined by the naturalist Roswell Hill Johnson but Joseph Grinnell was probably the first to use it in a research program in 1917, in his paper “The niche relationships of the California Thrasher”.
Who is Ame Naess?
Arne Dekke Eide Næss (/ˈɑːrnə ˈnɛs/ AR-nə NESS; Norwegian: [ˈnɛsː]; 27 January 1912 – 12 January 2009) was a Norwegian philosopher who coined the term “deep ecology”, an important intellectual and inspirational figure within the environmental movement of the late twentieth century, and a prolific writer on many other …
What is deep ecology according to Arne Ness?
The phrase “deep ecology” was coined by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess in 1973, and he helped give it a theoretical foundation. … Næss states that from an ecological point of view “the right of all forms [of life] to live is a universal right which cannot be quantified.
What is Arne Naess known for?
Arne Næss, who has died aged 96, was Norway’s best-known philosopher, whose concept of deep ecology enriched and divided the environmental movement. A keen mountaineer, for a quarter of his life he lived in an isolated hut high in the Hallingskarvet mountains in southern Norway.
Social Ecology, Edited by Ramchandra Guha; Oxford in India Readings in Sociology and Social Anthropology.
Why did næss choose the name deep ecology for his ecology movement?
Arne Naess, a Norwegian philosopher and mountain climber, coined the term deep ecology during a 1972 conference in Bucharest, Hungary, and soon afterward in print. He argued that nature has intrinsic value and criticized “shallow” nature philosophies that only value nature instrumentally.
Social ecology aims to reintegrate human social development with biological development, and human communities with ecocommunities, producing a rational and ecological society. … Instead, deep ecology seeks to preserve and expand wilderness areas, excluding human beings from ever-larger tracts of land and forest.